Ch 02 The Growth of Feudalism

Additions -The Growth & Decline of Feudalism-Islamic Science 800-1100AD

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ADDITIONS TO CHAPTER II

A PEOPLE”S HISTORY OF ENGLAND
CH. II THE GROWTH AND DECLINE OF FEUDALISM

 ISLAMIC SCIENCE  800- 1100 AD

 ISLAMIC SCIENCE BROUGHT GREEK LEARNING ALIVE AFTER IT HAD STALLED.

 ISLAMIC SCHOLARS HAD NO EMOTIONAL ATTACHMENTS AND APPROACHED THEIR LEARNING IN A DETACHED ATTITUDE.

 MUSLIMS WERE MORE ATTRACTED TO MYSTICAL ASPECTS OF PHILOSOPHY PARTICULARLY NEOPLATONISM AND THE THEOLOGY OF ARISTOTLE.

 NUMBER MAGIC WAS EXPOSED AND BECAUSE OF THE LOWER SOCIAL POSITION OF THE SCIENTISTS IN ISLAMIC CULTURE THEY WERE ABLE TO TAKE AN INTEREST IN MEDICINE AND NATURAL KNOWLEDGE.

 PICTURES SHOW ISLAMIC MEDICAL MEN COMING TO THE AID OF A MAN ATTACKED BY A SNAKE.

 RHAZAS AND AL KINDI TOOK MEDICAL SCIENCE FURTHER, BUT OTHERS  WERE STUCK WITH THE IDEA OF- MAN THE MICROCOSM IN THE MACROCOSM OF THE WORLD.

 THAT MAN WAS THE EPITOME OF A DIVINE CREATION.

 IN THE FIELD OF MATHEMATICS ISLAMIC SCIENCE MADE HUGE ADVANCES IN  THE FIELD OF NUMBERS, GEOMETRY AND COMPUTATION.

 IN ASTRONOMY THE ARABS CARRIED ON THE GREEK TRADITION OF STAR IDENTIFICATION AND WORSHIP.

 THEY MADE FEW ADVANCES IN GEOGRAPHY WHICH WAS A BRANCH OF ASTRONOMY, BUT THEY MAPPED ASIA AND NORTH AFRICA.

 ISLAMIC MEDICINE ADVANCED BY UNDERSTANDING A RANGE OF DISEASES AND OFTEN WORKED WITH JEWISH DOCTORS ON CLIMATE EFFECT,HYGIENE,AND DIET.

 IN THE FIELD OF OPTICS AND THE STUDY OF EYE DISEASES, ARAB PHYSICIANS UNDERSTOOD THE SENSE OF A PASSAGE OF LIGHT THROUGH TRANSPARENT BODIES AND LENSES USING CRYSTAL OR GLASS.

 THE BEGINNING OF SCIENTIFIC CHEMISTRY WAS PIONEERED BY ISLAMIC DOCTORS. IN ALCHEMY ONLY THE PUREST SUBSTANCES WERE SOUGHT. PERFUMERS AND METALLURGISTS MADE THE GREATEST CONTRIBUTIONS.

 THE LEGACY OF ISLAMIC SCIENCE IS CLEAR. THEY RESCUED GREEK SCIENCE AND IN THE ALEXANDRIAN SCHOOL THE FOUNDATIONS OF ALGEBRA AND TRIGONOMETRY WERE DEVELOPED.

 THE DECAY OF ISLAMIC CULTURE

 THERE WAS NO SPECTACULAR COLLAPSE BUT THE BEST DAYS WERE OVER BY 1100 AD. YET AVERROES AND IBN KHALDUN CONTINUED THE GOOD WORK.

 THE ISLAMIC AND BYZANTINE EMPIRES WERE UNABLE TO MAINTAIN THE ORGANISATION NECESSARY TO CONTROL AN EXTENSIVE STATE.

 BY THE TIME OF THE CRUSADES, FEUDAL DISPUTES HAD WEAKENED THE INFERIOR MILITARY. THE PROCESS WAS ACCELERATED BY THE WAVES OF BARBARIANS FROM THE STEPPE LANDS.

 HOWEVER THIS DOES NOT EXPLAIN THE DECLINE OF EGYPT  AND NORTH AFRICA WHICH THE MONGULS NEVER PENETRATED.

 ISLAM WAS TO SURVIVE BUT IT NEVER REGAINED THE SAME SCIENTIFIC IMPETUS  AFTER ITS ECONOMIC PROGRESS FAILED.

 ISLAMIC SCIENCE WAS NOT WASTED BUT HANDED ON TO THE GROWING SCIENCE OF FEUDAL CHRISTENDOM.

 BOTH THE GLORY AND LIMITATIONS OF ISLAMIC AND CHRISTIAN SCIENCE IN THE MIDDLE AGES STEM FROM THE SAME ROOT,AND THAT IS THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC BASIS OF FEUDALISM.

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