Ch 06 The New Monarchy and the Bourgeoise

Ch.06-New Monarchy and the Bourgeoisie

Hits: 1749

CHAPTER VI: NEW MONARCHY AND THE BOURGEOISIE

SECTION 6: THE COUNTER REFORMATION AND ELIZABETHAN SETTLEMENT

 

WHEN HENRY DIED, HE LEFT A COUNCIL OF REGENCY TO GOVERN IN PLACE OF THE YOUNG EDWARD VI, AND THE EXTREME PROTESTANT PARTY GAINED GROUND RAPIDLY.

A NEW PRAYER BOOK WAS ISSUED IN 1549, DIFFERING LITTLE (ONLY IN DETAIL) FROM TODAY’S.

THE CHIEF MERIT WAS ITS VAGUENESS, WHICH LEFT IT OPEN FOR ANYONE TO INTERPRET IT ANYWAY THEY WISHED. SO, ADVANTAGES WERE TAKEN OF RELIGIOUS GUILDS, EXCEPT FOR THE POWERFUL LONDON GUILDS.

A GENERAL PLUNDER OF PARISH CHURCHES OCCURRED UNDER THE GUISE OF SUPPRESSING IDOLATROUS IMAGES AND SUPERSTITIONS.

EVEN THE LEAD WAS TAKEN OFF THE ROOFS.

ANY PRETENCE OF MODERATION AND DECENCY WAS ABANDONED.

PROTESTANT BUCER WROTE OF THE DESTRUCTION BY A MINORITY IN THE EDWARDIAN REFORMATION, AND THE YOUNG KING WAS UNABLE TO STOP THE CORRUPTION, ALTHOUGH PROTECTOR SOMERSET DID HAVE A GENUINE DESIRE TO REMEDY THE MISERY CAUSED.

SOMERSET’S HESTITATION IN SUPPRESSING THE NORFOLK REBELS IN 1549 COMPLETED HIS LOSS OF CREDIBILITY, AND THE SCOUNDREL DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND PREPARED A COUP D’ETAT.

HE DISGUISED AN ATTEMPT TO OVERTHROW THE PROTESTANTS AND RESTORE CATHOLICISM. BY A CLEVER MOVE, HE ALLIED HIMSELF WITH THE EXTREME PROTESTANTS IN AN EFFORT TO SECURE THE IMMENSE WEALTH OF THE SEA OF DURHAM.

COMPLICATED INTRIGUES FOLLOWED BUT THEY DEPENDED FOR SUCCESS ON THE LIFE OF THE KING, BUT EDWARD WAS DYING.

PROTESTANT CALVANISM WAS BEING IMPOSED (CALVANISM WAS A THEOLOGIAN WHO ADVOCATED PREDESTINATION AND DIVINE GRACE - OR, IN OTHER WORDS, BEING A SOLDIER OF CHRIST BY GRACE (GOD’S REPRESENTATIVE ON EARTH).

MARY WAS NEXT IN LINE TO THE THRONE, A CATHOLIC AND BITTER ENEMY OF THOSE PROTESTANT EXTREMISTS.

NORTHUMBERLAND SCHEMED AGAIN BY MARRYING HIS SON TO LADY JANE GREY, A GRANDAUGHTER OF HENRY VII, AND FORCED THE ‘COUNCIL’ TO PROCLAIM JANE GREY QUEEN OF ENGLAND. HOWEVER, MARY WAS POPULAR AND RECEIVED SUPPORT.

NORTHUMBERLAND WAS ARRESTED AND BROUGHT TO LONDON TO BE EXECUTED. HE DISOWNED PROTESTANTISM AS HIS LAST ACT TO TRY TO SAVE HIS SKIN AND WEALTH.

ONE SHOULD NOT UNDERESTIMATE THE ROLE PROTESTANTISM, FUELLED BY THE GREED OF NORTHUMBERLAND, OR FORGET THE COURAGE AND SINGLEMINDEDNESS OF LATIMER OF THE COUNCIL.

LATIMER, A YEOMAN’S SON, BECAME BISHOP AND, WITH HIS PASSION FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE, CARRIED THE RADICALISM OF THOMAS MORE INTO THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION AS A TRUE VOICE OF WEAVERS AND PEASANTS, WHO FORMED ITS REVOLUTIONARY WING.

NORTHUMBERLAND’S CONSPIRACY HAD COLLAPSED, BUT MARY WAS STILL A HOSTAGE.

HOWEVER, SHE DID RESTORE MASS AND BURNED HERETIC WEAVERS BUT COULD NOT GET ONE SQUIRE TO GIVE UP HIS CHURCH LANDS.

APART FROM THAT, HER POSITION STRENGTHENED, AND ONE OF HER FIRST ACTS WAS TO BRING THE REFORMATION BACK TO THE POINT REACHED AT THE DEATH OF HENRY VIII, WHICH WAS A POPULAR MOVE.

MARY WAS UNIQUE AMONG TUDORS, POSSESSING GENUINE RELIGIOUS CONVICTIONS AND A COMPLETE LACK OF POLITICAL JUDGEMENT.

ANNOUNCING HER INTENTION TO MARRY PHILIP OF SPAIN DID NOT GO DOWN WELL, NEITHER DID HER RECONCILIATION WITH ROME.

EXECUTIONS AND PERSECUTION FOLLOWED. 300 WERE BURNED (CHOSEN AT RANDOM). LATIMER, HOOPER, FERRAR AND ARCHBISHOP CRANMER WERE ALSO BURNED.

NOT A SINGLE LAYMAN OF THE UPPER CLASSES SUFFERED. AS LONG AS THEY RENOUNCED ANY ONE FAITH OR PROFESSED ANY OTHER, THEIR LANDS WERE UNTOUCHED.

FEAR SPREAD ABOUT WHAT MARY WOULD DO NEXT.

WHOLESALE BURNINGS OF THE LAST FOUR YEARS WERE THOUGHT EXCESSIVE, AND INCREASED FEAR OF AN INQUISITION OCCURRED.

IN 1557, THE SPANISH WERE AT WAR WITH FRANCE AND CALAIS WAS LOST AFTER BEING IN ENGLISH HANDS FOR 300 YEARS.

ONLY THE KNOWLEDGE THAT MARY WAS DYING PREVENTED AN UPRISING THAT WOULD HAVE PROBABLY BEEN FOLLOWED BY AN INVASION OF ENGLAND BY SPAIN.

IT FELL TO ELIZABETH TO MAKE RELIGIOUS COMPROMISES. THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND CLAIMED TO BE CATHOLIC AND TO MAINTAIN THE TRADITIONS OF THE UNIVERSAL CHURCH, BUT IT ALSO ‘REFORMED’, AND CORRUPT PRACTICES WERE STOPPED.

THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND OWED ITS FORM TO THE POLITICAL NEEDS OF THE TIME.

ELIZABETH SHAPED PROTESTANTISM TO FIT THE NEEDS OF THE MONARCHY AND THE SYSTEM CREATED BY THE TUDORS.

THE PARSON IN THE VILLAGE BECAME A CLOSE ALLY OF THE SQUIRE AND WAS ALMOST AS MUCH A PART OF THE STATE MACHINE AS THE JUSTICE OF THE PEACE.

THE REFORMATION IN SCOTLAND TOOK A DIFFERENT COURSE BECAUSE THE CHURCH WAS MORE CORRUPT. THE CHURCH TRIUMPHED AND ALLIED ITSELF WITH NATIONALISM AND LIBERATION.


THE SCOTTISH KIRK WAS ALWAYS DEMOCRATICALLY ORGANISED, AND IT WAS IN THE KIRK THAT DEMOCRATIC IDEAS TOOK ROOT IN SCOTLAND.

BATTLES BETWEEN ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND PREVENTED THE REFORMATION TAKING HOLD THERE.

THE ENGLISH WERE THE ENEMY, BUT THE QUARREL WAS ENDED BY EDWARD VI’S MARRIAGE TO MARY.
TO END ALL DISSENT, EDWARD MARCHED AN ARMY INTO SCOTLAND, WON THE BATTLE OF PINKIE AND BURNED EDINBURGH.

AN ANGLO-SCOTTISH ALLIANCE WAS NOW DEAD IN THE WATER, AND THE QUEEN’S MOTHER RULED WITH THE HELP OF THE FRENCH ARMY, WHICH TREATED SCOTLAND AS A FRENCH PROVINCE.

CATHOLICS SUPPORTED THE FRENCH, WHILE PROTESTANTS ASSUMED THE ROLE OF PATRIOTS.

IN 1559, OPEN WAR BROKE OUT. THE FRENCH WERE EXPELLED AND SCOTLAND BECAME PROTESTANT.

IN 1561, MARY STUART RETURNED TO SCOTLAND FROM SPAIN, BUT ELIZABETH COULD NOT STAND FOR THAT AND SHUT HER UP IN A CASTLE, AS WAS HER WAY,TRYING TO COMPROMISE AND PUT OFF ANY DECISION FOR AS LONG AS POSSIBLE.

MARY’S DEMISE CHANGED ENGLISH HISTORY AND THE STRUGGLE JUST BEGINNING BETWEEN ENGLAND AND SPAIN.

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