Ch 07 Origin of the English Revolution

CHAPTER VII: ORIGIN OF THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION

Hits: 3403

 

SECTION 2: THE CHARTERED COMPANIES

BETWEEN PIRACY AND HONEST TRADE, NO CLEAR LINES WERE DRAWN. HAWKINS THRIVED AS A SLAVE TRADER, WHILE TRADE WAS FOUGHT FOR LEGITIMATELY.

THE WEST INDIES, MINES AND PLANTATIONS FLOURISED, AND A SHORTAGE OF LOCAL LABOUR RESULTED IN THE SLAVE TRADE, WHICH UNTIL THE MID 17th CENTURY WAS SMALL.

 

SUGAR AND TOBACCO PLANATIONS GREW, AND DEMAND WAS INSATIABLE.

 

ENGLAND RULED THE WAVES AND CAPTURED THE TRADE IN VIRGINIA IN 1584 AND JAMESTOWN IN 1607, AND SETTLEMENTS OF PURITANS SPRUNG UP WITH THE QUALITIES OF INDUSTRY AND THRIFT - THEIR DEFINING FEATURES AT HOME.

NEWCOMERS FROM ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND, PART CONVICT, PART UNEMPLOYED, JOINED THE RANKS WITH THE IRISH, WHO WERE EVICTED FROM THEIR LANDS AND MOVED WEST.

 

BY 1660, OCCUPATION OF THE WEST INDIES AND THE AMERICAN EAST WAS COMPLETE.

 

BUT IT WAS IRELAND, ENGLAND’S FIRST COLONY, WHERE THE TRICKS OF GOVERNING PERSISTED.

LAND WAS CONFISCATED AND THE IRISH DRIVEN OUT, REPLACED BY ENGLISH AND SCOTS.

IT BECAME EASIER TO RUIN IRELAND THAN ENRICH ENGLAND FINANCIALLY, AND CHARTERED COMPANIES WERE SET UP TO CARRY OUT THE OCCUPATION.

THESE COMPANIES GREW AND BECAME VERY POWERFUL IN THE LATE TUDOR AND EARLY STUART PERIOD, EXPANDING THE EMPIRE EAST TO THE BALTIC, TURKEY, AFRICA AND INDIA.

 

VIRTUAL MONOPOLIES WERE PRESERVED UNTIL 1753, EXPORTING CLOTH AND IMPORTING SILKS, SPICES AND DRUGS.

 

THE EAST INDIAN COMPANY RULED INDIA. THE SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE INFLUENCE WANED, AND THE ENGLISH AND DUTCH PREVAILED.


BY THE END OF THE 1600S, SPICES, INCLUDING PEPPER, FETCHED HIGH PRICES.

 

ANIMALS WERE USUALLY KILLED IN THE AUTUMN, DUE TO A LACK OF WINTER FEED, AND LIBERAL AMOUNTS OF SALTED SPICES WERE NEEDED TO MAKE THE MEAT PALATABLE.


TRADE EXPANDED INTO CONFLICT, AND THE DUTCH CHALLENGED THE ENGLISH FOR SUPREMACY. A TRADE WAR BROKE OUT.

 

NOT UNTIL THE 18th CENTURY DID THE ENGLISH REGAIN CONTROL, NOT JUST ECONOMICALLY, BUT POLITICALLY.

WHILE ELIZABETH APPRECIATED THE EXPANSION OF TRADE, JAMES I, COMING FROM BACKWARD SCOTLAND, FAILED TO RECOGNISE ITS IMPORTANCE.

IN 1604, THE WAR WITH SPAIN WAS ENDED WITH A PEACE TREATY. THE NAVY WAS ALLOWED TO DECLINE, AND TRADERS COMPLAINED OF ATTACKS BY PIRATES IN THE ENGLISH CHANNEL.

 

IN 1618, SIR WALTER RALEIGH LEFT FOR SOUTH AMERICA IN SEARCH OF GOLD AND WAS BEHEADED BY THE SPANISH AMBASSADOR.

 

THE CHANGE OF POLICY BY JAMES LED TO THE RESURRGENCE OF THE CATHOLICS AND THE GUNPOWDER PLOT OF 1605.

 

MORE PERSECUTIONS AND THE MARRIAGE OF CHARLES TO A FRENCH CATHOLIC DIDN’T HELP.

 

THE CATHOLICS ENJOYED A PERIOD OF TOLERANCE AND EVEN COURT FAVOUR, WHILE

THE PURITANS, SUPPORTERS OF THE TUDORS, WERE DRIVEN INTO OPPOSITION. THE CROWN BECAME IDENTIFIED WITH PATRIOTISM AND THE MONARCHY. A SECTION OF THE POPULATION WAS BELIEVED TO BE IN LEAGUE WITH FOREIGN ENEMIES.

THE STUARTS HAD ABANDONED FOREIGN POLICY, WHICH HAD BEEN ENGLAND’S STRENGTH, AND THEIR ALLIANCE WITH THE MOST HISTORICALLY PROGRESSIVE CLASS IN THE COUNTRY.

We use cookies to improve our website and your experience when using it. Cookies used for the essential operation of the site have already been set. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our Privacy Policy.

I accept cookies from this site